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Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic lymphocyte responses induced by enterotoxin-based mucosal adjuvants
    (1999-12-15) Simmons, Cameron
    The ability of enterotoxin-based mucosal adjuvants to induce CD8+ MHC class I-restricted CTL responses to a codelivered bystander Ag was examined. Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT), or derivatives of LT carrying mutations in the A subunit (LTR72, LTK63), were tested in parallel with cholera toxin (CT) or a fusion protein consisting of the A1 subunit of CT fused to the Ig binding domain of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (called CTA1-DD). Intranasal (i.n.) immunization of C57BL/6 mice with CT, CTA1-DD, LT, LTR72, LTK63, but not rLT-B, elicited MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cell responses to coadministered OVA or the OVA CTL peptide SIINFEKL (OVA257-264). CT, LT, and LTR72 also induced CTL responses to OVA after s.c. or oral coimmunization whereas LTK63 only activated responses after s.c. coimmunization. rLT-B was unable to adjuvant CTL responses to OVA or OVA257-264 administered by any route. Mice treated with an anti-CD4 mAb to deplete CD4+ T cells mounted significant OVA-specific CTL responses after i.n. coadministration of LT with OVA or OVA257-264. Both 51Cr release assays and IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assays indicated that IFN-gamma-/- and IL-12 p40-/- gene knockout mice developed CTL responses equivalent to those detected in normal C57BL/6 mice. The results highlight the versatility of toxin-based adjuvants and suggest that LT potentiates CTL responses independently of IL-12 and IFN-gamma and probably by a mechanism unrelated to cross-priming.
  • Publication
    Vaccines against gut pathogens
    (1999-11-01) Simmons, Cameron
  • DNA vaccines for bacterial infections
    (1997-08-01) Doe, Jhon
    DNA vaccines are an exciting development in vaccine technology which may have a special role in preventing viral infections and as 'theracines' for cancer. Their use in preventing bacterial infections has, by comparison, been less well documented. While it is unlikely that traditional, highly successful and cheap vaccines for diseases such as diphtheria will be replaced by DNA vaccines, naked DNA may be particularly appropriate for preventing bacterial infections where cytotoxic T cells confer protection, or where a Th1 type T cell response mediates resistance. For example, DNA vaccines containing different mycobacterial antigens have been shown to inhibit overt infections by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in rodent models. The use of DNA vaccines in bacterial infections may be complicated by fundamental differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes and gene products, including mRNA stability, codon bias, secondary structures surrounding native start sequences and glycosylation. These problems can be solved by re-synthesis of bacterial genes to produce 'new' sequences which are more highly expressed by eukaryotic cells.
  • Publication
    Cloning and manipulation of the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis recA gene for live vaccine vector development
    (1996-09-01) Simmons, Cameron
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is an intracellular bacterial pathogen causing a chronic abscessing disease in sheep and goats called caseous lymphadenitis. We are developing this bacterial species as a live vector system to deliver vaccine antigens to the animal immune system. Foreign genes expressed in bacterial hosts can be unstable so we undertook to delete the C. pseudotuberculosis chromosomal recA gene to determine whether a recA- background would reduce the frequency of recombination in cloned DNA. Homologous DNA recombination within an isogenic recA- C. pseudotuberculosis was 10-12-fold lower than that in the recA+ parental strain. Importantly, the recA mutation had no detectable affect upon the virulence of C. pseudotuberculosis in a mouse model. Taken together these results suggest that a recA- background may be useful in the further development of C. pseudotuberculosis as a vaccine vector.
  • Publication
    Identification and characterization of a K88- and CS31A-like operon of a rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain which encodes fimbriae involved in the colonization of rabbit intestine
    (1997-12-01) Simmons, Cameron
    Initiation of attaching-effacing lesions, which characterize infections with rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (REPEC), requires bacteria to adhere to the intestinal epithelium. This adherence is reflected in vitro by the affinity of these E. coli strains for various types of eukaryotic cells. TnphoA mutants of REPEC 83/39 (O15:H-) which had lost the ability to adhere to HEp-2 epithelial cells, guinea pig ileal brush borders, and mouse erythrocytes were generated. DNA sequencing of the region surrounding the inactivating transposon insertions within a 95-kb plasmid, designated pRAP for REPEC adherence plasmid, revealed extensive homology between that region and the structural genes of enterotoxigenic E. coli operons encoding the K88 and CS31A fimbrial adhesins and the genes for the afr2 adhesin from REPEC B10 (O103:H2). Seven genes of the ral operon (for REPEC adherence locus), including three putative minor fimbrial subunit genes (ralC, ralF, and ralH), a major fimbrial subunit gene (ralG), a gene of unknown function (ralI), and genes for two fimbrial subunit chaperones (ralD and ralE), were sequenced. When inoculated perorally into weanling rabbits, a mutant with a TnphoA insertion in the ralE gene showed a 10-fold reduction in colonizing ability, with only 1 of 10 rabbits excreting bacteria compared to all 5 of those infected with the wild-type parent strain (P = 0.002). The severity of the diarrheal illness caused by the mutant strain was also reduced. Western blotting of surface protein extracts of strain 83/39 with hyperimmune anti-83/39 antiserum, adsorbed with the ralE mutant, revealed a 32-kDa protein which was absent from protein extracts of two nonadherent mutants. The adsorbed antiserum also bound to the surface of strain 83/39 but not to nonadherent mutants, as detected by immunogold labeling. These results indicate that the ral operon of REPEC 83/39 contains genes necessary for the biosynthesis of fine fimbriae which are responsible for in vitro adherence of the bacteria and play a role in their colonization of, and hence virulence for, rabbits. The putative major fimbrial subunit is a protein with an observed molecular size of approximately 32 kDa which, when assembled, appears to form a capsule of fimbriae surrounding the bacterium similar to that described for CS31A.