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Now showing 1 - 10 of 655
  • Publication
    TestBook1
    (2018-05-17) Eens, Marcel ; Vercauteren, Marcel ; De Wael, Karolien ; Anaesthesiology ; Abdominal and Paediatric Surgery
  • Publication
    TestArticle3
    (2018-05-17) De Wael, Karolien ; Anaesthesiology
  • Person
    Simmons, Cameron
    Director of the Institute of Vector-Borne Disease
  • Publication
    Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy individuals
    (2008-10-01) Simmons, Cameron
    The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans remains a global health concern. Current influenza vaccines stimulate antibody responses against the surface glycoproteins but are ineffective against strains that have undergone significant antigenic variation. An alternative approach is to stimulate pre-existing memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection that could cross-react with H5N1 by targeting highly conserved internal proteins. To determine how common cross-reactive T cells are, we performed a comprehensive ex vivo analysis of cross-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cell responses to overlapping peptides spanning the full proteome of influenza A/Viet Nam/CL26/2005 (H5N1) and influenza A/New York/232/2004 (H3N2) in healthy individuals from the United Kingdom and Viet Nam. Memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from the majority of participants exhibited human influenza-specific responses and showed cross-recognition of at least one H5N1 internal protein. Participant CD4+ and CD8+ T cells recognized multiple synthesized influenza peptides, including peptides from the H5N1 strain. Matrix protein 1 (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP) were the immunodominant targets of cross-recognition. In addition, cross-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells recognized target cells infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing either H5N1 M1 or NP. Thus, vaccine formulas inducing heterosubtypic T cell-mediated immunity may confer broad protection against avian and human influenza A viruses.
  • Publication
    Serial MRI to determine the effect of dexamethasone on the cerebral pathology of tuberculous meningitis: an observational study
    (2007-03-01) Simmons, Cameron
    BACKGROUND: Adjunctive dexamethasone increases survival from tuberculous meningitis, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We aimed to determine the effect of dexamethasone on cerebral MRI changes and their association with intracerebral inflammatory responses and clinical outcome in adults treated for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: Cerebral MRI was undertaken, when possible, at diagnosis and after 60 days and 270 days of treatment in adults with tuberculous meningitis admitted to two hospitals in Vietnam. Patients were randomly assigned either dexamethasone (n=24) or placebo (n=19) and received 9 months of treatment with standard first-line antituberculosis drugs. We assessed associations between MRI findings, treatment allocation, and resolution of fever, coma, cerebrospinal fluid inflammation, and neurological outcome. FINDINGS: 83 scans were done for 43 patients: 19 given placebo, 24 given dexamethasone. Basal meningeal enhancement (82%) and hydrocephalus (77%) were the most common presenting findings. Fewer patients had hydrocephalus after 60 days of treatment with dexamethasone than after placebo treatment (p=0.217). Tuberculomas developed in 74% of patients during treatment and in equal proportions in the treatment groups; they were associated with long-term fever, but not relapse or poor clinical outcome. The basal ganglia were the most common site of infarction; the proportion with infarction after 60 days was halved in the dexamethasone group (27%vs 58%, p=0.130). INTERPRETATION: Dexamethasone may affect outcome from tuberculous meningitis by reducing hydrocephalus and preventing infarction. The effect may have been under-estimated because the most severe patients could not be scanned.
  • Publication
    Central role for B lymphocytes and CD4(+) T cells in immunity to infection by the attaching and effacing pathogen Citrobacter rodentium
    (2003-09-01) Simmons, Cameron
    Citrobacter rodentium, an attaching-effacing bacterial pathogen, establishes an acute infection of the murine colonic epithelium and induces a mild colitis in immunocompetent mice. This study describes the role of T-cell subsets and B lymphocytes in immunity to C. rodentium. C57Bl/6 mice orally infected with C. rodentium resolved infection within 3 to 4 weeks. Conversely, systemic and colonic tissues of RAG1(-/-) mice orally infected with C. rodentium contained high and sustained pathogen loads, and in the colon this resulted in a severe colitis. C57Bl/6 mice depleted of CD4(+) T cells, but not CD8(+) T cells, were highly susceptible to infection and also developed severe colitis. Mice depleted of CD4(+) T cells also had diminished immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibody responses to two C. rodentium virulence-associated determinants, i.e., EspA and intimin, despite having a massively increased pathogen burden. Mice with an intact T-cell compartment, but lacking B cells ( micro MT mice), were highly susceptible to C. rodentium infection. Systemic immunity, but not mucosal immunity, could be restored by adoptive transfer of convalescent immune sera to infected micro MT mice. Adoptive transfer of immune B cells, but not naïve B cells, provided highly variable immunity to recipient micro MT mice. The results suggest that B-cell-mediated immune responses are central to resolution of a C. rodentium infection but that the mechanism through which this occurs requires further investigation. These data are relevant to understanding immunity to enteric attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens of humans.
  • Publication
    Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia
    (2006-10-01) Simmons, Cameron
    Avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses cause severe disease in humans, but the basis for their virulence remains unclear. In vitro and animal studies indicate that high and disseminated viral replication is important for disease pathogenesis. Laboratory experiments suggest that virus-induced cytokine dysregulation may contribute to disease severity. To assess the relevance of these findings for human disease, we performed virological and immunological studies in 18 individuals with H5N1 and 8 individuals infected with human influenza virus subtypes. Influenza H5N1 infection in humans is characterized by high pharyngeal virus loads and frequent detection of viral RNA in rectum and blood. Viral RNA in blood was present only in fatal H5N1 cases and was associated with higher pharyngeal viral loads. We observed low peripheral blood T-lymphocyte counts and high chemokine and cytokine levels in H5N1-infected individuals, particularly in those who died, and these correlated with pharyngeal viral loads. Genetic characterization of H5N1 viruses revealed mutations in the viral polymerase complex associated with mammalian adaptation and virulence. Our observations indicate that high viral load, and the resulting intense inflammatory responses, are central to influenza H5N1 pathogenesis. The focus of clinical management should be on preventing this intense cytokine response, by early diagnosis and effective antiviral treatment.
  • Journal Issue
  • Journal Issue
  • Journal Volume
    Journal of Financial Therapy Volume 8
    Journal of Financial Therapy (8)